Structure, Properties, Solidification team

SP2 team main objectives:

It is of paramount importance to master the material structure for the control of properties under various mechanical, physical or chemical constraints. Because the processing parameters are the main variables upon solidification processes, coupling of the structure development with macroscopic heat and mass transfers must be achieved. The studies are developed at the several length and time scales that characterize the formation of the solid structure of materials from the liquid state.



Current projects (2017):

  • European Space Agency (ESA) (projects CCEMLCC, CETSOL, NEQUISOL) : Microgravity studies of alloy solidification to reach benchmark data used to compare with numerical models, 1999 2019

  • Agence Nationale de La Recherche (ANR) (CrySaLID, NEMESIS, MACCADAM) : Mesoscopic modeling of solidification grain structures for various materials (silicon, metallic alloys) and processes (directional solidification, welding, additive manufacturing), 2014-2022

  • CARNOT (project CEFALE) : Numerical modeling of additive manufacturing for ceramic materials, 2014-2018

  • Fonds Unique Interministériel (FUI) (Project SOFT-DEFIS) : Macroscopic modeling of grain structures for large scale casting (large ingots, continuous casting), 2016-2020

  • Association Nationale de la Recherche et de la Technologie (ANRT) et SAFRAN (Projet Cifre) : Mesoscopic modeling of macrosegregation and channel formation during investing casting of nickel-base superalloys, 2016-2019



Equipments and softwares of SP2 team:

Cellular Automaton – Finite Element

Research areas:

Microstructures, Segregations, Microgravity, PhysalurgY, Heat treatments, Mechanical properties



Solidification, Phase Transformations, Microstructures, Thermodynamics, Properties, Kinetics, Diffusion, Properties, Modeling, Processing


Academic relations:

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Cologne, Allemagne
Université d’Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Northeastern University, Boston, USA


Industrial relations:

Aperam, Arcelormittal, Ascometal, Aubert&Duval, Safran


Recent key-fact of SP2 team:

PhysalurgY (G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin)

Physically based microstructure kinetics modules for metallic alloys are developed in the SP2 group. They are coupled with equilibrium thermodynamic computations based on the Thermo-Calc software. A library named PhysalurgY (PY) has been structured to gather all these modules. It contents most of the activities on physical metallurgy carried out in the group by staff members, students and post-doctoral fellows, thus offering a platform for application to various alloy families. PY also provides an original and optimized framework facilitating the current and future developments with an easy-to-use and dynamic interface. This library is periodically updated depending from the evolution of the software Thermo-Calc and its associated databases.

PY modules give access to simulation of the transformations paths in metallic alloys, microsegregation processes, growth kinetics of microstructures (e.g., dendrites, eutectics, precipitates), diffusion in phases with interface tracking, … for multicomponent alloys. These modules are currently used for research with our industrial partners.

Figure caption: Finite Element simulation of directional solidification for a Fe-2wt%C-30wt%Cr alloy showing (left) C and Cr distribution after completion of solidification, (center) time evolution of the volume fraction of various phases at Bottom and Top centered position of the rod and (right) resulting distribution of phase BCC at 11000 s. Macrosegregation is evidenced by the formation of channel segregates formed during solidification that are visible in the chemical composition maps, as well as on the resulting volume fraction of the BCC phase see in the phase composition map. Such predictions are made possible by the use of the PY\PATH module that tabulates the transformation paths for a range of alloy compositions, as well as to a new energy solver making use of such tabulations [Saad A., Gandin C.-A., Bellet M., “Temperature-based energy solver coupled with tabulated thermodynamic properties - Application to the prediction of macrosegregation in multicomponent alloys”, Computational materials science, 99, 221-231 (2015)].


Latest publications of SP2 team

G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin, An analytical model with interaction between species for growth and dissolution of precipitates, Acta Materialia, 134 (2017), 375-393
Koshikawa T., Bellet M., Gandin C.-A., Yamamura H., Bobadilla M., Experimental study and two-phase numerical modelling of macrosegregation induced by solid deformation during punch pressing of solidifying steel ingots, Acta materialia, 124 (2017), 513-527
Q. Chen, G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin, M. Bellet, Three-dimensional finite element thermomechanical modeling of additive manufacturing by selective laser melting for ceramic materials, Additive Manufacturing, 16 (2017), 124-137
S. Chen, G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin, Three-dimensional cellular automaton-finite element modeling of solidification grain structures for arc-welding processes, Acta Materialia, 115 (2016), 448-467
G. Guillemot, Ch.-A. Gandin, Analytical model for equiaxed globular solidification in multicomponent alloys, Acta Materialia, 97 (2015), 419-434


Interactions with the following Cemef teams :

  • ThermoMechanics and Plasticity - TMP (simulation of solidification processes)
  • Computing and FLuid - CFL (simulation of levitated liquid droplets)
  • Surfaces and Processes ressearch unit - PSP (stress measurement)


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